Since I’ve started this blog, my article entitled “The linkage of Malay (and Indonesian) with Tagalog” is, as of now, currently my most popular and most viewed out of the articles I’ve written so far. So for a reward of your kindness towards that article, I’ve decided to make a Part 2 of it.
If you haven’t read that article yet, do click the link above or here.
For this article, I have discovered more words/cognates found in both Malay and Tagalog.
Many of the worlds in the lists were from the comments for the previous article, so I thank those who’ve made comments and suggestions that contributed to the vocabulary lists.
I have also noticed that based on the vocabulary given from the comments for the previous article, I get the impression that the vocabulary in the Philippine languages seem to have more in common with the languages of Borneo or Sulawesi than the standardised language/s from Johor in Peninsula Malaysia.
Here are some more words in Tagalog and Malay/Indonesian and mean the same thing.
NOTE: For now, I’m only comparing Malay/Indonesian and not other languages from Malaysia or Indonesia (e.g. Javanese) as I am not very familiar about them yet.
|mari||maaari||to allow to do|
*Common in other Tagalog-speaking provinces like Marinduque. In Manila, mali is preferred. Sala also means “living room”. (Ma)init is preferred in Manila to refer something hot.
More words found in Malay/Indonesian and Tagalog that mean the same, but have different spellings and orthography.
The Tagalog equivalent omits the Malay “m” and/or removes the “g” from the Malay “ng” in the middle of the word.
The Tagalog equivalent usually replaces the Malay “u” with an “o”.
The Tagalog equivalent sometimes replaces the “r” with “l”.
Here is a new list of false friends between Malay/Indonesian and Tagalog.
|Malay/Indonesian||English meaning||Tagalog||English meaning|
|bangun||to wake up||bangon||to rise up|
|ikut||to follow||ikot||to go around|
|ingat||to remember||ingat||to take care|
|jadi*||to become||yari*||to happen|
|kita||we (inclusive)||kita||dual pronoun|
|ucap (I)||to pronounce||usap||to converse|
*Not too sure if this is a similarity.
The Tagalog equivalents of the English translations of the Malay false friends are as follows:
|to wake up||gising|
*not too much of a false friend from Malay’s mulai
For the most part, almost every Philippine language seems to have the VSO sentence structure as opposed to Malay’s SVO structure like in English. There are other languages in Indonesia that have the VSO structure mainly in Sulawesi but I have yet to find resources about them.
Despite the title of this article about comparing Malay to Tagalog, I will go one step further and make comparisons between Malay and not only Tagalog but also with other languages of the Philippines. This is to show linguistic and cultural connections between the Philippines and the rest of the Malay-speaking world. Various parts of the Philippines were part of either the Srivijaya, Majapahit or the Bruneian empires.
Here are a list of Malay words/cognates that can be found in other Philippine languages which are further from the Tagalog equivalents.
|Malay Word||Other Word||Language||English||Tagalog equivalent|
|ini||ini||Bikol, Visayan langs.||this||ito|
|makan||mangan||Ilocano, Kapampangan||to eat||kain|
|peria||paria, palya||Ilocano, Maranao||bitter gourd||ampalaya|
|dua||duwa, duha||Ilocano, Visayan langs.||two||dalawa|
|bicara (I)||bisara||Tausug||to speak||salita|
|jembatan (bridge)||jambatan||Tausug||pier||tulay (bridge), pantalan (pier)|
|buat||buhat**||Visayan languages||to do||gawa|
|kamu||kamo***||Visayan languages||you (pl.)||kayo|
*Came from the European Portuguese word for “pineapple”, ananas . The Brazilian Portuguese word for “pineapple” is abacaxi.
**buhat in Tagalog means to lift and/or carry
***Commonly used in Marinduque Tagalog
Furthermore, the days of the week in Tausug, Maranao, Maguindanao and other languages of Filipino Muslims are basically the same as in Malay/Indonesian which were derived from the Arabic days of the week. Tagalog and other languages use the ones derived from Spanish.
There are about 170 languages spoken in the Philippines so obviously the lists do not cover all of those languages. I only just used the languages from the resources I was only able to obtain.
Many languages have affixes among other ways to make nouns from adjectives. For example, in English good + ness = goodness, which refers to the things that make something good. Another term for this is abstract nouns. Other suffixes in abstract nouns in English mainly include ~hood, ~ity, ~tion and ~sion.
Malay/Indonesian has ke-an while Tagalog has ka-an. These circumfixes have multiple functions. The Tagalog version is generally used to form abstract nouns out of adjectives, nouns or verbs. The Malay/Indonesian version/s however use theirs to make abstract nouns, make adjectives describing excessiveness (too much) and act as verbs describing something beyond control.
Here are a few examples.
The root words of the words are in bold. In order to make these words in Malay, usually all you need to do is just add the circumfix to the root words. Easy. But for Tagalog, one has to change the morphology of some letters.
For example, if the root word ends with a consonant and the last vowel before that is ‘o‘, it becomes a ‘u‘ when added with ~an, ~in or the ka-an circumfix.
|gutom (hungry) + ka-an||kagutuman (hunger)|
|hukom (judge) + an||hukuman (court of law)|
|takot (fear/scared) + ka-an||katakutan (fear)|
Also in Tagalog, if the root word ends with a ‘d’, it becomes an ‘r’ when added with ~an, ~in or the ka-an circumfix.
|(ma)unlad (progressive) + ka-an||kaunlaran (progress)|
|bayad (to pay) + an||bayaran (payment)|
|tawid (to cross) + an||tawiran (crossing)|
These are obviously very exhausting analysis and comparisons between Malay and Tagalog. I think I’ve written a lot so I may have to stop it here. I’m sure I could discover more words I could add to my analyses and comparisons but I will save that for another article. I hope to discover something new as I enjoy writing articles about this topic.
If there are errors in this article, do not hesitate to inform me in the comments section.
Personally I enjoy finding similarities between these languages. As someone of Filipino descent, learning about these similarities allows me to understand more about the heritage of my ancestors and their connections to other parts of Asia. A lot of Filipino costumes and dances may be Spanish-influenced but deep inside the internal culture are the legacies that connect the people to the Malay-speaking world starting with the languages Filipinos speak.